People who have personality disorders may have the feeling that they are constantly in a war with themselves. And, that could be the worst sensation one could have; not to feel comfortable with themself.
Personality disorders involve behaviors that make it difficult for people to cope with themselves and succeed in interpersonal relationships. So, read further to learn how to recognize different personality disorders, treatments given, and many associated topics that go with them.
An Introduction to Personality Disorders
Everyone has various ways of thinking, perceiving, and behaving. These perceptions, attitudes, and responses build up our personality, which is often termed our traits. They mold the style we observe the world and the way we correlate to others. In fact, everyone may get emotional, get insecure, or like getting chosen at times. But it is when these attitudes begin to create problems, you may be diagnosed as possessing a personality dysfunction.
A personality disorder is a sort of mental disorder in which a person occupies an inflexible and weak pattern of thinking, performing, and functioning. An individual with a personality dysfunction has difficulty understanding and associating with circumstances and society. Also, these disorders could lead to notable predicaments and shortcomings in relationships, social movements, work, and school.
Personality disorders typically start in the adolescent ages or early adulthood. personality disorders types and certain types may apparently be less evident during middle age. In some cases, you may not apprehend that you have a personality disorder since your way of thinking and behaving appears normal to you. And you reach steps further and accuse others of the difficulties you confront.
In fact, personality disorders are deep-rooted patterns of performance and inner occurrences that vary, especially from what is assumed. If a person goes without therapy or medication or disregards the causes for personality disorder, they can be long-running.
Personality disorders may impact at least two of these spheres:
- Way of responding emotionally
- Mode of speculating about oneself and others
- The habit of constraining one’s behavior
- Form of comparing to other individuals
How Can You Tell If Someone Has a Personality Disorder?
To deal with someone who has personality disorders, it is essential to be aware of their symptoms. According to the experts in psychology, they have classified personality disorders into three clusters, which we will discuss in the sections below. But, here, we have presented you with 9 common characteristics of a person who possesses some sort of personality disorder.
However, just because a person has this behavior, we cannot come to a conclusion that they have a personality dysfunction until they exhibit some extremities of them. Moreover, these can also be considered to be warning signs.
What Are the 9 Signs Of Personality Disorder? (Common and Warning Symptoms)
- Depression that is uncontrollable.
- Extreme anxiety or nervousness.
- Impulsive behavior and extreme arrogance
- Indifferent or peculiar thinking patterns.
- Intense fear.
- Urge for having unsafe sex or having no sex drive at all.
- Dramatic behavior.
- Intemperate shyness.
- Lack of self-confidence or excessive inferiority.
What Are the 10 Specific Personality Disorders?
At present, psychoanalysts lead to use a practice of diagnosis which distinguishes ten types of personality disorders. Accordingly, they have classified them into three personality disorder clusters: Cluster A, Cluster B, and Cluster C. And, each personality disorder possesses its own collection of diagnostic measures.
Cluster A Personality Disorders
Cluster A personality dysfunctions are distinguished by unusual, idiosyncratic thinking and behavior. Cluster A comprises three personality disorders. They are:
- Schizotypal Personality Disorder
- Paranoid Personality Disorder
- Schizoid Personality Disorder
The general features of Cluster A personality disorders are social incompetence, distorted thinking, and inappropriate emotional reactions.
Cluster B Personality Disorders
Cluster B includes disorders that are identified by spontaneous, tense, and abnormal thinking and behavior. Cluster B personality dysfunctions include four personality disorders. They are as follows.
- Borderline Personality Disorder
- Narcissistic Personality Disorder
- Antisocial Personality Disorder
- Histrionic Personality Disorder
The common characteristics of Cluster B personality disorders are conditions with pressure control, excessively emotional or inconstant thinking or behavior, and other problems with impulsive regulation.
Cluster C Personality Disorders
Cluster C includes disorders that are marked by anxiety, nervous thinking, and behavior. Cluster C consists of three disorders. They are:
- Obsessive-compulsive Personality Disorder
- Avoidant Personality Disorder
- Dependent Personality Disorder
Cluster C personality disorders experience a flying level of anxiety. People who possess disorders from this cluster often show characteristics such as social inhibition, preoccupation, or clingy behavior apart from anxiety.
In order to receive a specific analysis, you must suffice some of these criteria. The least amount you require to fit varies for different types, but it should perpetually be more than one or two. If you match the requirements for more than one type, this may be termed as “a mixed personality disorder”. However, A broad spectrum of people may receive the same diagnosis, despite having very distinct personalities and various specific encounters.
Amplification On Personality Disorders
Since we reviewed the three clusters, let us now elaborate on each of the ten disorders we have discussed on top.
#01- Schizotypal Personality Disorder (STPD)
Schizotypal Personality Disorder is a long-rooted pattern of behavior and encounter. Essentially part of that pattern, a person will have trouble performing or undergoes a great plethora of distress.
Individuals with Schizotypal Personality Disorder are misanthropes who choose to maintain their distance and are awkward in relationships. These individuals seldom show strange speech or conduct. Moreover, they have a restricted or featureless spectrum of emotions. This sequence occurs initially in adulthood and proceeds throughout life.
General Symptoms of Schizotypal Personality Disorder
- Be doubtful and paranoid.
- They act, talk, or dress in an unusual or uncommon style.
- Own fewer friends or company.
- They become distressed or uneasy in social circumstances due to their distrust or doubt of others.
- Act very awkwardly with intimacy.
- Possess restricted emotional responses or appear insipid.
- They tend to misunderstand the truth or to have twisted judgments. They are usually misinterpreting noises for voices, for example.
- Stay engrossed with daydreaming or fantasy.
- Possess strange faiths or mysterious thinking – like, acting excessively credulous or thinking of themselves as supernatural.
- Come across as emotionally withdrawn, reserved, or indifferent.
- They tend to be stubborn and uncomfortable when compared to others.
Schizotypal Personality Disorder Versus Schizophrenia
As discussed on top, people with Schizotypal Personality Disorder may have unusual faiths or superstitions. Plus, they have difficulty establishing intimate relationships and tend to deceive actuality. Consequently, Schizotypal Personality Disorder can look like a moderate kind of Schizophrenia. This condition is a severe brain dysfunction that twists how a person thinks, behaves, shows emotions, understands reality, and associates with others. These people may have misconceptions and even hallucinate. But, people who have STPD do not show those symptoms. However, in exceptional situations, people with STPD may proceed on to develop Schizophrenia.
Causes and Risk Factors For Schizotypal Personality Disorder
There is no particular cause for Schizotypal Personality Disorder. But, like most other psychotic disorders, it is recognized to be the outcome of a sequence of the following.
- Living vulnerabilities
- Modes of thinking
- Social annoyance
Furthermore, the genes of a person can be a risk factor for STPD. A family relative who has STPD or another mental or personality disorder could raise the chances.
#02- Paranoid Personality Disorder (PPD)
Paranoid Personality Disorder is a collection of conditions called unconventional personality disorders. The primary feature of people with PPD is paranoia (fear), remorseless skepticism, and mistrust of others without reasonable cause to be suspicious. PPD often originates in childhood or early youth. And, this seems to be more prevalent in men than in women. General Symptoms of Paranoid Personality Disorder
- They are antagonistic, obstinate, and contentious.
- Tend to discredit the commitment, integrity, or honesty, thinking others are using or misleading them.
- Observe charges on their character that are not visible to others; they usually respond with rage and quick revenge.
- Hesitant to trust others or share personal information; is concerned that the information will be utilized against them.
- Examine mysterious meanings in the honest remarks or random looks of others.
- Revengeful and hold grudges.
- They cannot recognize their part in conflicts and think they are always correct.
- Neurotic and take criticism crudely.
- Have repetitive doubts, without purpose, that their mates or lovers are deceitful.
- They are usually aloof and withdrawn in their relationships with others and might become predominant and demanding.
- Have trouble relaxing.
Causes and Risk Factors for Paranoid Personality Disorder
The exact reason for this disorder is unknown. But it possibly includes a key of biological and psychical factors.
- Early childhood encounters.
- More prevalent in people who have close relatives with Schizophrenia.
- Physical or emotional trauma.
#03- Schizoid Personality Disorder (SPD)
Individuals with Schizoid Personality Disorder conduce to be reserved, disconnected, and unresponsive to social connections. In fact, they usually are misanthropes who favor individual activities and seldom show powerful emotion. Although the names appear similar and might have comparable indications, Schizoid Personality Disorder is not identical to Schizophrenia. However, a majority of people with SPD can perform pretty well, while they prefer jobs that allow them to work all by themselves.
Common Symptoms of Schizoid Personality Disorder
- They often daydream or imagine lively fantasies of intricate inner worlds.
- Prefer individual activities and jobs.
- They do not want or relish intimate relationships, even with family members.
- Have no close associates besides first-degree relatives.
- They enjoy few activities, including sex.
- Often reserved and show weak emotion.
- They have trouble associating with others.
- Mostly neutral to compliment or criticism.
Causes and Risk Factors For Schizoid Personality Disorder
Not much data is present for the causes of Schizoid Personality Disorder. But, both genetics and background are assumed to play a role. However, causes and risk factors can be,
- A bitter childhood where affection and sentiment were absent.
- Having a parent who was distant, inattentive, or unresponsive to emotional requirements.
- Owning a parent or other relative who has SPD, STPD, or Schizophrenia.
#04- Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD
Borderline Personality Disorder is a dysfunction characterized by an open-ended sequence of diversifying moods, behavior, and self-image. Therefore, these signs often end in spontaneous actions and difficulties in relationships. Individuals with BPD also tend to see things in extremes. Their impressions of other people can also switch instantly. Consequently, these altering emotions can pave the way to serious and weak relationships.
Other General Symptoms Of Borderline Personality Disorder
- They often feel neurotic or depressed.
- Possess strong but weak relationships with others.
- They are spontaneous and like to do things on the spur of the moment,
- Often feeling distressed about themselves.
- They are restraining their emotions.
- Feeling empty, self-destructive thoughts, and attempts to take their own life.
- Identity confusion – not having discernment of who they are.
- Disengagement – a sense of being detached from your own body. Or feeling separated from the world around them.
- They hear voices or noises when they are emphasized.
Causes and Risk Factors For Borderline Personality Disorder
- People are more exposed to BPD if a close family member also lives with BPD.
- Issues with levels of your brain chemicals, especially serotonin.
- Environmental circumstances like undergoing abuse.
- Being ignored by the caretakers as a child.
- Experiencing long-term anxiety or suffering as a child.
#05- Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD)
Individuals with Narcissistic Personality Disorder hold an exaggerated opinion of themselves and require extreme attention from other people. Plus, they step ahead to extremities of selfishness and boastfulness. And also, they tend to devalue others’ opinions or faiths and disregard others’ requirements. However, there is a fine line between being self-absorbed (often called a narcissist) and having a Narcissistic Personality Disorder, a mental sickness.
NPD could cause obstacles in many spheres of life. Such as work, relationships, school, or financial matters. NPD can lead to grief and frustration when not provided the special compliments or appreciation they think they deserve.
General Symptoms of Narcissistic Personality Disorder
- Always prioritize themselves regardless of the situation.
- Consider about themself every time and speak about themself a lot.
- Upset other people regularly.
- Strive to hold on to relationships.
- Believe they know the right way.
- Extreme attention and admiration seekers.
- Believe they are exceptional.
- Set nonsensical goals.
- Exaggerate their skills and accomplishments.
- Possess broad, wild mood fluctuations.
- Hypercompetitive and strive to win, whatever it takes
- Have trouble perceiving others’ feelings thoughtfully.
- Easily bothered, overreacts, and unable to handle criticisms.
- Creates justifications for own flaws or weaknesses.
- Refuses to accept responsibility.
- Manipulative and provocative.
- Does not listen, is emotionally inattentive, and often interferes.
- Only deal with people believed to be on their level.
- Responds with anger and dishonor others.
Causes and Risk Factors For Narcissistic Personality Disorder
- Inherited traits.
- Conflicts in parent-child connections with over love or extreme criticism.
- The link between the brain and behavior and thinking.
#06- Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD)
Antisocial Personality Disorder, also called sociopathy, is a disorder in which an individual does not bother for right and wrong and disregards the preferences and feelings of others. Moreover, people with ASPD tend to offend, manipulate or negotiate others brutally or with insensitivity. They exhibit no guilt or shame for their actions.
However, advanced diagnostic methods contemplate ASPD to encompass 2 similar but not equal conditions: A “psychopath” whose dangerous actions toward others tend to show prudence, manipulation, and craftiness. And, they tend not to feel an emotion and simulate empathy for others.
This is a severe version of ASPD. They can be misleadingly captivating and charming. But, “sociopaths” are slightly more able to create attachments to others yet ignore social rules. And they tend to be more spontaneous, reckless, and easily disturbed than people with psychopathy. According to the data, this is more prevalent in men than women.
General Symptoms of Antisocial Personality Disorder
- They do not bother about the protection of themselves or others.
- Often deceive, trick, and misuse others.
- Behave irresponsibly.
- Act annoyed and aggressive.
- Violate laws.
- Fail financially, in work, or social responsibilities.
- Do not manifest indications of regret after damaging someone else.
- They are often abused by alcohol or drugs.
- Fight or attack other people.
Causes and Risk Factors For Antisocial Personality Disorder
- Growing up in a traumatic background.
- Brain defects or damages during developmental years.
#07- Histrionic Personality Disorder (HPD)
People with Histrionic Personality Disorder possess solid and unpredictable emotions and twisted self-images. For individuals with HPD, their dignity relies upon the consent of others and does not originate from a genuine feeling of self-worth. Furthermore, they have an overwhelming urge to be discerned and often act exaggeratedly or unusually to gain attention. The term “Histrionic” indicates “dramatic or theatrical.”
And, this disorder is more prevalent in women than in men and is typically visible in teens or early adulthood.
Common Symptoms of Histrionic Personality Disorder
- Behave very dramatically.
- Change emotions quickly and make impulsive decisions.
- Become upset if they aren’t the center of attention.
- Dress seductively and show inappropriately tempting or provocative behavior.
- Be excessively bothered with physical appearance.
- Overly sensitive to judgment or criticism.
- Do not think before acting.
- Self-centered and infrequently care for others.
- Have trouble keeping relationships.
- Naive and easily manipulated by others.
- Have a low endurance for disappointment and be quickly tired by routine.
- Abuse or try suicide to get attention.
Causes and Risk Factors For Histrionic Personality Disorder
- Inherited factors
- When positive support is only given when a child achieves certain recommended behaviors.
- Lack of criticism or discipline as a child
- When inconstant regard is given to a child by parents.
#08- Obsessive-compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD)
Obsessive-compulsive Personality Disorder is characterized by stringent orderliness, perfectionism, and control. A person with OCPD will strive to remain in charge of the most trivial aspects of their lives, even at the cost of their versatility and openness to novel experiences. Additionally, OCPD is a dysfunction that includes personality traits that are solid, atypical, long-held, and questionable in some way.
However, remember that OCPD is not the same as Obsessive-compulsive Disorder (OCD). OCD is built in its own class of mental states termed “Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders.”
General Symptoms Of Obsessive-compulsive Personality Disorder
- Intense commitment to work.
- They wish to dominate their relationships with others.
- Behave controlled or contained with their emotions.
- Difficulty giving up restraint and assigning to tasks.
- Devotion to rules in a rigid, inflexible way.
- They are constructing orders and lists for chores.
- Trouble empathizing with others or keeping close relationships.
- Possessing difficulty giving things to others.
- Issues with self-direction or self-identity.
Causes and Risk Factors For Obsessive-compulsive Personality Disorder
- Lack of empathy and emotional support in childhood.
- Had overprotective parents who did not give much care
- Weak attachments with parents
- Risk factors like depression, Parkinson’s Disease, Illness anxiety disorder, and eating disorders.
#09- Avoidant Personality Disorder (AVPD)
Avoidant Personality Disorder is defined by feelings of insufficiency, consciousness to negative criticism and rejection, and excessive social restraint. Still, the indications include more than just being shy or socially uncomfortable. In that case, AVPD causes considerable difficulties that affect cooperating with others and keeping relationships in day-to-day life. And, approximately 1% of the overall population has this disorder.
Common Symptoms of Avoidant Personality Disorder
- Undergoes extreme nervousness and anxiety in social backgrounds and relationships.
- Possess a poor self-image, often regarding themselves as weak and inferior.
- Easily hurt and oversensitive to criticism or rejection.
- Have few intimate friends and are unwilling to become associated with others unless sure of being chosen.
- Infrequently attempt anything new or take opportunities.
- Tend to be shy, self-conscious, and uncertain in social circumstances due to a concern of doing something incorrectly or being ashamed.
- Tend to amplify possible problems.
Causes and Risk Factors For Avoidant Personality Disorder
- Parental or peer denial in childhood
#10- Dependent Personality Disorder (DPD)
Someone with DPD possesses an overpowering necessity to have others take care of them. Often, such a person depends on people familiar and closer to them for their emotional or physical requirements. They can also be defined as clingy or needy. DPD typically begins through childhood or by the age of 29. Studies tell that less than 1% of adults meet the standards for DPD, and more women than men are prone to this disorder.
General Symptoms of Dependent Personality Disorder
- Trouble being alone.
- Withdrawal of personal accountability.
- Oversensitivity to judgment.
- The concern of abandonment and a feeling of weakness when relationships end.
- Difficulty making ordinary decisions.
- Hopelessness, negativity, and lack of self-confidence.
Causes and Risk Factors For Dependent Personality Disorder
- Abusive relationships
- Oversensitivity to judgment.
- Childhood trauma
- Certain religious, cultural, or family behaviors
What Is the Most Common Type of Personality Disorder?
According to the statistics and studies conducted worldwide, it is revealed that about 10% of the general population is affected by a personality disorder. Respectively, the recent data shows that 1.6% of the global population has been diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). And apparently, BPD is currently the most common type of personality disorder that can be found in people.
Personality Disorder Treatment
Like any other ailment, a personality treatment could be treated more efficiently when diagnosed in the early stages. However, the type of treatment for your disorder will be decided upon the personality dysfunction you possess. Personality disorders are persistent, and therapy may need months or even years. Therefore, a team procedure is required to ensure all of your medical, psychiatric, and social requirements are satisfied. You may need to seek help from a psychiatrist, psychologist, other therapists, psychiatric nurse, pharmacist, or social worker on your treatment approach.
Treatment 01- Medication
Your healthcare provider may prescribe you certain types of medication that would help reduce the disorder symptoms. They can be,
- Mood stabilizers
- Antipsychotic medications
- Anti-anxiety medicines
Treatment 02- Psychotherapy
Psychotherapy is a mode of talk therapy that supports controlling personality disorders. You and your therapist could discuss your situation and your thoughts and feelings during this session. Accordingly, it can provide penetration into controlling your symptoms and responses that conflict with your ordinary life.
There are certain types of psychotherapy.
- Cognitive-behavioral Therapy – intends to educate people on how to transform negative thinking patterns to cope better with daily trials.
- Dialectical Behavior Therapy- involves group and personal sessions where people discover how to endure stress and cultivate relationships.
Treatment 03- Residential and Hospital Treatment Plans
In severe cases, your health caretaker may recommend that you be admitted to a hospital for procedures. However, this treatment is usually regarded when your condition is uncontrollable or dangerous. And, after you become stable, the doctors might suggest you a residential or outpatient program.
What Is the Hardest Personality Disorder to Treat?
Experts find it usually hard to treat personality disorders as they tend to go misdiagnosed most of the time. However, Borderline Personality Disorder has long been observed as challenging to treat. But, the good news is, with modern and evidence-based approaches, many people with BPD encounter less and fewer acute symptoms.
A personality disorder is considered one of the most life-challenging ailments that one could encounter. Dealing and coping with your own disordered self or with someone who has such a disorder can be a real challenge. But, with proper diagnosis, effective treatment methods, and support from close ones, any personality disorder is controllable, though it cannot be cured.